This paper attacks the challenging problem of zero-example video retrieval. In such a retrieval paradigm, an end user searches for unlabeled videos by ad-hoc queries described in natural language text with no visual example provided. Given videos as sequences of frames and queries as sequences of words, an effective sequence-to-sequence cross-modal matching is required. The majority of existing methods are concept based, extracting relevant concepts from queries and videos and accordingly establishing associations between the two modalities. In contrast, this paper takes a concept-free approach, proposing a dual deep encoding network that encodes videos and queries into powerful dense representations of their own. Dual encoding is conceptually simple, practically effective and end-to-end. As experiments on three benchmarks, i.e., MSR-VTT, TRECVID 2016 and 2017 Ad-hoc Video Search show, the proposed solution establishes a new state-of-the-art for zero-example video retrieval.
(2019): Dual Encoding for Zero-Example Video Retrieval. In: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019.